The pursuit of precision is the reason for the existence of the watchmaking. Personal taste and style of expression, treasures, decoration decorative subject and mechanical think of opportunely, put aside everything, what you have is a designed to precise timing machine. Now accurate atomic clock time everywhere, within easy reach, but the precise nature of what in the world, the answer is not always as easy as imaged replica dietrich watches.
In most people’s understanding, a wrist watch is accurate, mainly to see whether it can correspond to “standard time”. The so-called “standard time”, now generally provided by mobile phones or wearable intelligent wrist watch. If this wrist watch as always with the “standard time” (mobile phone connected to the Internet time, and finally provided by atomic clocks) corresponding to the consistent, then we say that it is accurate. A mechanical watch, of course, is not perfect time-keeper. So we often from their own expectations (rather than scientific measurement), make roughly judgment: how this watches is not allowed, I again how.
To lundgren pocket watch as an example, the choice of it because it illustrates a key point: built precision TAB target, surprisingly, is not to achieve accurate achievement. Yes, accuracy is very important, but it is the result of a more fundamental elements, namely rate swatches. Swatches rate means that, in a nutshell, watches at a given time interval travel time is constant. A swatches rate watches is a watches of precision. What is the difference between precision and speed stability? Can imagine the rate stability of the watches: + 6 seconds, the first day to 10 seconds, the next day – 2 seconds on the third day, the fourth day + 7 seconds, the fifth day – 1 seconds. After five days, and “standard time” do not bad, you may find your own watches is very accurate. But that is not the case, your watches is not precise, and “standard time” consistent results just because of a lucky coincidence.
Any clock is dependent on the oscillator – may be a pendulum, may be a balance wheel balance spring, may also be a tuning fork type quartz crystal. Oscillator rate, the more swatches, clocks and watches also more precise. A typical example is the Marine chronometer. Before to ship, Marine chronometer is set very carefully. Compared with the accurate, people more the hope that it can keep a steady rate. If you know the Marine chronometer every five seconds faster, you can easily calculate the GMT, and then according to the astronomical observations to locate. In general, to avoid disturbing Marine chronometer rate, can be set on the deck clock Marine chronometer display of time, used for observation.
Pictured above is lundgren pocket watch machine core. Admittedly, this is a precise pocket watch, but above intercept part mainly shows that to be accurate, need to keep a swatches rate in the first place. Pure steel quality, and the pendulum shaft equipped with ruby drill, the two little friction, make sure the rate does not change with the mainspring power to change. The greater the friction, balance wheel is more sensitive to the change of power. Balance spring existence of balance wheel less susceptible to the influence of dynamic change, at the same time, (breguet) end balance spring curve also makes the swing and rate, less affected by the position change. Moreover, balance wheel with stainless steel and copper, the diameter of it may change with the temperature change, to compensate for the influence of temperature change on the balance spring, further improve the stability of the rate.
Diagram for the watches of the largest contribution to the accurate (swatches) rather than to simply rate of a single element, is, in fact, the beauty of the gooseneck fine-tuning. By changing the position of the bolt, adjust the balance spring curve at the end. Bolt position determines the effective length of the hair, make watches as synchronous external “standard time” (such as accurate pendulum clock in the 19th century or today’s atomic time signal). Watchmaker can adjust the specific parameters, it is also likely to wrist watch is normal operation before the last calibration.
The size of the balance wheel and the quality is another point. Oscillator rate stability depends on the frequency and quality of the relationship. Ascension, the other one or two, usually get a more swatches rate. Pictured above is a pendulum clock escapement close-up, pendulum clock usually equipped with low frequency oscillator with high quality. For centuries, the watchmaker, always for the balance wheel of a given size machine equipped with as large as possible; In the 20th century and even today, the watchmaker, and using high frequency balance wheel (some extent “28000 times per hour” has become the new standard, by contrast, in the 19th century the pocket watch balance wheel vibration frequency for “18000 times per hour”). Industry is also, of course, is actively trying to, and strive to go further.
Pictured above is parma Johnny Senfine concept movement, equipped with Genequand escapement. Oscillator of unusual materials and design, vibration frequency up to 115200 times per hour (16 hz, it also makes it in theory can provide 70 – day power storage).
With the improvement of frequency, of course, the quality is often reduced. Quality of quartz oscillator are very small, and frequency of the corresponding is also higher. On the precise contest, 32768 hz Gao Zhenpin enough to mechanical watch without a fight. Atomic clocks use of resonance frequency, cesium atoms is typical representative – 9192631770 hz (cesium – 133 atomic ground state transition between the two hyperfine energy level of the radiation frequency).
Who still care about the precision? Of course, we care! But I often wonder, too, when it comes to precision, perhaps pursuit process and the final result is as interesting and attractive. Apple, for example, Watch equipped with temperature compensation crystal oscillator (TCXO, found in high-grade quartz movement, such as the one hundred spirit SuperQuartz and Seiko Grand Seiko 9 f series) is a good try, but it has also used the network time protocol (NTP) synchronization clock inside, so in practice, you may never really realize it is equipped with a better oscillator. More appropriate to say that Apple precision Watch didn’t stand behind the person, at least not directly – wrist Watch is behind mobile phone, mobile phone is behind the network protocol, the network protocol is behind some level of time server, and then is built-in atomic clocks, GPS satellite finally is the main atomic clocks.
The pocket watch long stories tell us that carefully adjust the calibration, the actual wear may be error control in 1 seconds, at the same time reduce the rate of change, and this is all thanks to master eyes and hands. Precision mechanical watch today does not need to be exactly the same skills, and no one will be dedicated to manually adjust the temperature compensation balance wheel on a regular basis. But you should know, lundgren pocket watch for many multifarious craft are still with us, they gave a mechanical clocks and watches a new dimension, make the glamour that hour meter continues today, and continue to circulate.